David Kessler from Atlantis Hydroponics shares his insights on what light is and how plants respond to it.
It blew my ten year old mind when my “all knowing” grandmother told me that the Blue Jay we were watching was in fact not blue. She explained how light was composed of many colors, and it was those colors that were reflected, not absorbed that our eyes perceived as the color of an object. This is a necessary reminder that what is perceived might not be what it appears to be. For decades the indoor gardening community has used Lumens as the standard increment for the measurement of light. Lumens were unfortunately a poor choice, here’s why.
Lumens are essentially a measure of brightness based on human perception. Precisely, a lumen is equal to the light emitted by one candle falling on one square foot of surface located one foot away. This however presumes a human as the perceiver of the light. Plants “perceive” light differently; from a plant’s perspective light that is useful for photosynthesis is not necessarily bright. Light, or more specifically, visible light is made up of wavelengths of energy on the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 380-770 nanometers (nm). Plants utilize wavelengths from 400-700nm for photosynthesis. Brightness does not accurately describe if the light will be more or less useful to a plant.
Light can be characterized in other ways when discussing its benefit to plants. Color temperature is often referred to in our industry on light lamp boxes to describe the color of the light emitted from the lamp. Does 4,000K grow a plant better than 5,000K? Color temperature is listed in Kelvin (K), which is a measurement of temperature. The temperature of what you may ask? It is a description of the relative whiteness of a piece of tungsten steel when heated to that temperature in degrees Kelvin. This accurately characterizes the color of the light as we perceive it but color temperature again fails to address how effective a particular light source will be at providing the energy necessary to drive photosynthesis in plants.
Don’t get frustrated by this inadequate information. There is in fact a measurement that precisely describes how effective light will be for photosynthesis; PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation). PAR spectrum accounts only for light or more precisely photons emitted between 400-700nm. Scientists have concluded that it requires about 9 photons to bind one CO2 molecule in photosynthesis [6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2]. It has also been found that there is little difference between the effectiveness of red & blue photons as long as they are within the 400-700nm range. This leads to a direct correlation between the number of photons produced in the PAR spectrum and the photosynthetic potential of a light source.
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Check out the Sun Systems PAR meter - a neat way of discovering how the light is distributed in your indoor garden.
Photons are emitted by light in very large numbers so we do not talk about billions or quadrillions of photons, instead we refer to them using the multiplier moles (which stand for 6.0221415 x 1023) To make the numbers even more accessible the number of moles is often divided by 1 million resulting in micro-moles (μmol). Light sources emit photons continuously over time so the number of micro-moles is more accurately described as μmol/per unit of time (most commonly seconds).
When trying to quantify how effective a light source is beyond the total output of μmol/per second, you must consider one last piece of information… the area of your garden. Inevitably some of the photons produced will not reach your garden. So the most accurate representation of a light source’s ability to drive photosynthesis will take into account the area being lit and how many photons reach a given area per second; usually as square meters. That representation which actually summates the effectiveness of a light source for photosynthesis is written as μmol/m2/s. This descriptor is actually referred to as Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density or PPFD for short.
So in light of all of the information above let’s remember that lumens are not what they appear to be, or at least they are not a useful descriptor of a light’s ability to drive photosynthesis. I think I will sit back with a drink, and digest all of the information about PAR & PPFD while I watch the not so blue Blue Jay outside my window.
Special thanks to David Kessler from Atlantis Hydroponics.